Unwarranted criticism and libellous accusations of corruption badly affected O'Connor's mental health and led him to take his own life,but one of Ireland's and Australia's greatest engineers left an extraordinary legacy - in a mere 10 years he transformed Western Australia and today,他死后100多年,他被认为是当地人
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澳大利亚土著人有一个关于爱尔兰工程师查尔斯·奥康纳死亡的故事。In the course of his construction of Fremantle harbour he ordered the destruction of a reef which was used by aboriginal men to cross the Swan River for ceremonies with their womenfolk.Angered by this destruction of their ceremonial route,they sang a mystical aboriginal song to drive him mad.Subsequently (the story goes),他骑着自己和他的马从悬崖上跳到海里死了。

The story has a grain of truth;更多的是因为工作压力而不是魔法歌曲,并且以相对不那么戏剧化的方式,查尔斯·叶尔弗顿·奥康纳会骑着他的马去冲浪并开枪自杀。奥康纳死后留下的遗产意义重大,将在稍后讨论,但集中精力研究它将是一种灾难服务。

查尔斯·叶尔弗顿·奥康纳。

出生在纳万郊外的一个陆地家庭,查尔斯·叶尔弗顿·奥康纳(CharlesYelvertonO'Connor)进入这个世界时,爱尔兰正处于其最大灾难——饥荒的痛苦之中。

他的父母对他们周围发生的人道主义危机感到震惊。为了减轻饥饿群众的痛苦,他们卖掉或抵押了所有必须买的食物,nearly paupering their selves in the process.

这种无私的行为导致一家人为了省钱而分居,年轻的查尔斯被送到他姑妈家去住。A few years later,他在沃特福德市与他们团聚,继续接受教育。

Expertise in developing weirs and flood defences


17岁时,他在铁路工程师约翰·史密斯(John C Smith)的领导下开始了他的工程生涯。培训成为测量员。五年多来,他开始开发铁路安全施工和使用所需的堰和防洪设施。

1864年,aged 21,新大陆冒险的诱惑在召唤;特别是新西兰,当时正经历一场淘金热,急需工程师为金田建造基础设施。

In New Zealand his reputation grew gradually.Starting out as an assistant engineer in the west of the province of Canterbury,he successfully completed roads,railways,码头和港口项目在最具挑战性的地形。

他出名了,不仅是一个杰出的工程师,也是一个伟大的项目经理和男人的动力。Now known affectionately as ‘CY',he would rise to become under-secretary of public works.A lifelong career in New Zealand seemed to beckon as he married Susan Laetitia Ness and together they had eight children.

不是这样的,however;after 27 years of public service and deserving of the prestigious position of secretary of public works,he was overlooked and moved sideways to the position of chief marine engineer.幻灭加上经济衰退,meant CY was looking elsewhere for new challenges and opportunities.

‘Railways,港口,everything'


This was to manifest itself by way of an invitation by John Forrest,premier of the state of Western Australia in 1891.Tempted by the offer of a generous five-year contract,he inquired as to the nature of his responsibility.他回想起了一句话:“铁路,港口,一切”和新西兰的损失是西澳州的收益。

Arriving in Perth,西澳州首府,他被正式任命为国家总工程师和铁路总经理。他很快与约翰·福雷斯特建立了密切的工作关系,并分享了他对新兴殖民地的愿景。把福雷斯特的愿景变成现实是赛义德的任务。

西澳大利亚是一个幅员辽阔的州,覆盖了澳大利亚三分之一的土地,当时只有5万人口。拥有未开发的矿产资源,这个初出茅庐的州已经具备了扩张的条件,但它迫切需要基础设施,而西奥康纳是这项工作的负责人。

名单上的第一个项目是将斯旺河入口处的弗雷曼特尔港改造成该州的主要港口。离珀斯只有14公里,it would replace Albany Port 400km away and would become the foundation stone of a vast infrastructure network that also included a significant railway expansion.

Then only a long timber jetty,others had concluded that the river mouth wasn't suitable for a harbour of any substance.Shallow,多岩石,容易产生沙流,河口直接流入印度洋的涌浪和大风中,途中有多种航行危险。

即使是福雷斯特也认为这是不可能的,但赛伊并不那么信服。他进行了细致的研究和计算,consulted with local sailors and studied the local currents and winds.In the end he concluded that a large sheltered deepwater harbour could be created there.

Utilised process of dredging,blasting and land reclamation


With a single-mindedness he utilised a process of dredging,blasting and land reclamation as he changed the landscape to suit his needs.从1892年开始,五年后,该港口竣工,西澳大利亚州开始营业。A new era had begun for Western Australia and CY was honoured both in Australia and worldwide being made a Companion of St Michael and St George by the British crown.

赛义德可能更受尊敬,然而,根据他手下的人给他的头衔:“首领”。他的标准很严格,赛伊被他手下的人崇拜,因为他们知道,尽管他期望最好,he would give his best for them in return by striving to improve their working conditions and pay.

The words of John Forrest perhaps say it best "..In this action of the engineer you see the character of the man;他不怕承担这项伟大工作的责任。我相信在他身上我们有能力和精力,一个勇敢和自力更生的人……”

这一基础设施网络的第二个关键部分是铁路系统,当塞浦路斯接管时,铁路系统处于可怕的状态。大约有400英里的铁轨横跨全州,with the government owning less than half of it.

每年亏损4万英镑,铁路网是不同轨距的混乱,老旧列车,陡坡和缓慢的服务。几乎就在那时,塞伊开始安排将列车车间转移到一个更中心的位置,这样列车就可以在网络上更快地调度。

不怕为普通人挺身而出


He also demanded better working conditions for his staff,highlighting that they were overworked,underpaid and endured unsafe conditions.He endorsed better education and training for them.像他父母一样,CY wasn't afraid to stand up for the ordinary people.

1892年和1893年,该州东部地区连续两次的淘金热意味着需要扩大铁路网络。The system couldn't cope with the demands placed on it – a massive backlog of cargo was piling up at depots,等着上火车,and this increased by the ton daily.

CY ripped up the old lightweight track and relayed a heavier one along a less steep route through the Darling mountain range.This enabled newly purchased,更重更频繁的列车,为快速扩张的淘金热城镇提供了重要的生命线,供应和,最重要的是,water at an unprecedented level.

五年来,塞浦路斯的铁路网增长了三倍,made it profitable and built more lines to the southwest and north of the state capital.然而,his most important work with the railways would be not realised until 10 years after his death,he commissioned the survey and planning of the Transcontinental Rail line which would connect Perth on the west coast to Sydney on the east coast of the continent.Both the new harbour and the new rail network would prove invaluable for O'Connor's next challenge: a water pipeline.

Goldfields pipeline along Great Eastern Highway.

到目前为止最大的问题是缺水


即使有了火车的生命线,conditions in the various gold rush towns in the barren east were primitive at best.The biggest issue by far was the lack of water.Its scarcity was so bad,具有讽刺意味的是,它变得比黄金更珍贵,和威士忌一样昂贵,配给的一加仑每日津贴在今天的货币中大约要花20欧元。

Water wasn't available for the steam trains or washing – let alone the higher standard required for consumption – and diseases like typhus were rampant.在40摄氏度的高温下,据估计,每天需要20万加仑,以作为一种权宜之计,在不同地点安装了大型水箱。In what must have been an extraordinary sight,2500万加仑的水用数百只骆驼运到这些水罐里。

只有一个人能应付这场危机。继续他一贯的热情和对细节的关注,赛伊想出了一个可行的计划。他会沿着达林山脉的西边斜坡筑坝拦河,通过八个抽水站和两个小型水坝将水从山上提起来,每天向金田抽水500万加仑,持续500公里。By routing the pipeline overground and alongside his railway he would both reduce costs and provide a practical source for his steam trains.

Some politicians balked at the idea and used the newspapers they owned to attack the plan,saying it was a waste;几年后黄金就会消失,人们就会离开城镇。Cy的声誉,他在让其他工程师对他的计划进行同行评审方面的尽职调查,加上福雷斯特总理的政治报道,意味着,然而,that the plan got approved.Work was started in 1896/8 and completed in 1903.

施工中使用的资源数量惊人;for the reservoir weir alone,an estimated 8,500 tons of concrete was used as men poured it 24/7 for 30 months,creating a 100ft-high wall to store 4,655 million gallons of water.

如何减少管道泄漏的问题


One of the biggest engineering problem was how to minimise leaks along the pipeline.当时使用的铆接系统根本不合适。CY wasn't afraid to utilise cutting-edge technology and ordered 30ft pipes that used a recently invented ‘locking bar' system.

A total of 60,000 pipes were built with 70,000 tons of steel and brought to the pipeline construction points via rail.When built,the pipeline was the longest fresh-water pipeline in the world.测试时,需要两天时间将水从一端输送到另一端。

管道工作正常,很快,淘金热镇的情况随着正常的淡水得到了显著改善。It sustained the thirsty inhabitants,supplied water for industry including the mines and trains and also over time made land sustainable for farming,在海岸和金矿之间形成“小麦带”。

经济效益巨大,即使在今天,more than 100 years later and now known as ‘the golden pipeline',it is still in use supplying more than 100 towns,560万英亩的农田和估计10万人。

The pipeline would be CY's greatest achievement but it did not go smoothly,然而。政界人士策划了一场有组织、协调一致的反对输油管道的批评运动,对抗既得利益集团和反对西澳大利亚总理的媒体,John Forrest.他们把这个项目的延误作为武器,诽谤两个男人。福雷斯特;老练的政治家,忽视了这一点,很快被提升到远离珀斯政治的澳大利亚政府中的一个享有声望的职位。

暴躁的政治家拥有的媒体攻击了他的性格


对腐败的批评和诽谤性指控更让赛义德本人感到震惊,然而,福雷斯特现在不在现场了,它们只是增加了。感知血液,一个现在暴躁的政治家拥有的媒体攻击了他的性格,questioning his ability,ridiculing him,呼吁他辞职并返回爱尔兰。他们甚至暗示他所建的水坝会坍塌并淹没珀斯。

彼得罗·波切利的奥康纳雕像,弗里曼特港。这座雕像面向东北朝向弗里曼特尔港。

One newspaper wrote "… and apart from any distinct charge of corruption this man has exhibited such gross blundering or something worse,in his management of great public works it is no exaggeration to say that he has robbed the taxpayer of this state of many millions of money… This crocodile imposter has been backed up in all his reckless extravagant juggling with public funds…"

作为回应,政治家们设立了许多委员会,调查管道的各个方面,from its tendering process to how the pipes were being connected.新总理领导下的西澳大利亚政府受到恐吓,拒绝对抗这些强大而富有的恶霸。相反,它在1892年成立了一个皇家调查委员会,助长了一场误会。It would eventually exonerate him from any wrongdoing but by then it was too late.

神经痛折磨,失眠症,神经衰弱和抑郁


Cy的精神健康状况很糟糕,he was tortured with neuralgia,失眠症,nervous exhaustion and subsequently,抑郁。On March 10,1902,他再也受不了这种压力了,他经常去弗雷曼特附近的海滩,rode into the surf and shot himself.澳大利亚和爱尔兰最伟大的工程师之一死了。

他留下了一封信,信中写道:“我觉得我的大脑很痛苦,and I am in great fear of what effect all this worry will have upon me.I have lost control of my thoughts.Coolgardie(Pipeline)计划很好,威廉希尔中国注册and I could finish it if I got the chance and protection from misrepresentation;但现在没有希望了,and it is better that it should be given to some entirely new man to do,他们将不受先前职责的约束。2002年10月3日。Put the wing wall to Helena weir at once."

他死后,his will was granted probate as he had assets of less than £200 (the Australian dollar only came into being in 1966 when it replaced the Australian pound).十个月后,管道最终完工,超出预算只有10万英镑。O'Connor was buried under a large Celtic Cross headstone.

赛伊从未忘记他的根,据报道,他的女儿凯特说,"he was devoted to Ireland and carried Ireland with him everywhere and he was acutely sensitive to the unhappy state of Ireland and the distress of many of his countrymen".

The statue of O'Connor and horse at CY O'Connor beach.

悲惨的死亡震惊了整个国家


奥康纳的惨死震惊了整个国家,people struggled to understand how a man who appeared to have it all would end his life.报纸和政客们在这件事上明显保持沉默。

1911年,他的同事们筹集资金委托一座皮特罗·波切利的雕像,这座雕像被放置在弗里曼特尔港口大楼外。随着时间的推移,他的故事将永垂不朽,他的传奇也随之成长。正如所料,街道,郊区,建筑,传统小径,lakes and colleges were named after him but,in addition,he also become a source of inspiration for artists.

作曲人伯纳德·卡尼(BernardCarney)以自己的名誉创作并表演了《工程师的眼睛》。艺术家罗伯特·杜尼伯画了他的肖像和作品。罗伯特·德鲁的《溺水者》是一部获奖小说,讲述了奥康纳和他建造输油管道的故事。基于这本书的电影也在开发中。

His story truly entered legendary status when the beach where O'Connor ended his life was renamed in his memory and a poignant 2m bronze sculpture by Tony Jones was erected there in 1999.这座雕塑位于离岸20米处,在海浪中描绘了奥康纳骑在马上的样子,他回头望着弗里曼特尔港。

经Tony Jones许可转载http://www.tonyjonesartprojects.com/

他的雕塑立刻引起了人们的强烈共鸣。It has been voted as one of Western Australia's most significant artworks and annually his descendants remember CY's legacy by swimming out to it and floating flowers.

Today CY is remembered as a great engineer,人道主义和作为纪念的象征。在短短的10年时间里,西澳大利亚发生了翻天覆地的变化,more than 100 years later,那个州的人民仍然记得他是当地的英雄。

Author: Kenneth Mitchell,BEngHDipMSc CEng,MIEI,是化学和环境工程领域的特许工程师。威廉希尔中国注册

References


1)首席Cy O'Connor(1978)Tauman,Mereb,University of Western Australia Press
2)塞奥康纳:他的生活和遗产。(2001)埃文斯,A.G.,University of Western Australia Press.
3) Cyo'Connor是那个时代的人,西里尔·艾里斯,Perth 1996
4.)工程师,1902年4月18日;JK Ewers,管线的故事;土木工程师学会会议录,williamhill娱乐沃尔斯。CLXXXIV,P.一百五十七
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//www.bjfpb.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/a2.jpg//www.bjfpb.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/a2-300x300.jpgDavid O'Riordanwilliamhill娱乐澳大利亚,基础设施,交通
澳大利亚土著人有一个关于爱尔兰工程师查尔斯·奥康纳死亡的故事。In the course of his construction of Fremantle harbour he ordered the destruction of a reef which was used by aboriginal men to cross the Swan River for ceremonies with their womenfolk....